In vitro fertilization, which can also be called assisted reproductive techniques, is used in cases where the egg and sperm cells cannot come together, embryo formation cannot be achieved or the embryo cannot attach to the uterus, due to a reason that can occur in women, men and sometimes in both couples, the sperm and egg cells are taken out of the body and fertilized in the laboratory environment. It is the process of transferring the formed embryo to the uterus.
IVF treatment; ovulation problems of women, clogged both tubes, low egg reserve, endometriosis, decrease in male sperm count, lack of movement, severe deformity or azoospermia, presence of genetic conditions in people, immunological problems, failure in vaccination applications It can be applied in cases such as advanced age in women, endometrioma, repeated pregnancy loss, some hormonal disorders.
In vitro fertilization treatment is only applied to married couples according to the regulations in our country. This type of treatment cannot be applied to unmarried couples. In women; In cases of early menopause or early egg insufficiency, this treatment cannot be applied in cases where sperm cannot be seen in the semen or sperm production is not possible in men.
Stimulation of the Eggs: Hormone therapy is started so that the eggs in the ovarian reserve of the expectant mother can mature. For this process, first of all, GnRH analogs are given to the person to suppress the ovaries. Then hMG and FSH are administered to stimulate the ovaries. Thus, the number and quality of eggs of the expectant mother is increased. After about 8 to 10 days, the follicle size is 18 to 20 mm. When it reaches its size, HCG, that is, cracking injection is done.
Egg Collection: 34 to 36 hours after the application of the cracking needle, the egg collection process, which is defined as the OPU process, is started. Transvaginal ultrasound-guided sedation analgesia-anesthesia takes approximately 13-30 minutes for the procedure. The person does not feel pain during the OPU procedure performed in the vaginal examination position.
Sperm Retrieval: The father-to-be gives a sperm sample by masturbation in the sperm room. The sample taken is given to the laboratory. In men who do not have sperm in the semen, sperm can be obtained surgically from the ovaries.
Fertilization: In the IVF process, which is the classical in vitro fertilization method, the egg and sperm cells taken are brought together in an environment prepared in the laboratory and fertilization is expected. In ICSI, or in other words, the microinjection technique, the sperm is injected into the egg. At the end of both methods, an embryo is formed by fertilization of the egg.
Embryo Transfer: In embryo transfer, which is the last stage of IVF treatment, the previously obtained embryo is transferred to the uterus of the expectant mother. In the transfer process performed with ultrasonography without the need for anesthesia, the embryo is left into the uterus with the help of a catheter.
At every stage of IVF treatment, there are some risks and side effects, albeit small ones. IVF treatment risks include:
Multiple (multiple) pregnancy: If more than one embryo is transferred to your uterus with in vitro fertilization treatment (IVF), this increases the risk of multiple pregnancy. A pregnancy with more than one fetus carries a greater risk of preterm birth and low birth weight than a pregnancy with a single fetus.
Premature birth and low birth weight risk: As a result of the researches, it is seen that IVF slightly increases the risk of the baby being born prematurely or low birth weight.
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: This occurs in expectant mothers who are treated with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) to trigger egg development in the in vitro fertilization method. Some expectant mothers may overreact to the drug and dose given. As a matter of fact, some side effects may occur within two weeks. This condition is called "Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome" (Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome-OHSS).
Risk of miscarriage: Pregnancies that occur with the IVF method are now followed as normal pregnancies. Only if there has been a multiple pregnancy can this be considered a risk.
Egg retrieval procedure complications: Using an aspiration needle to collect eggs can cause bleeding, infection, or damage to the bowel, bladder, or a blood vessel.
Ectopic pregnancy (ectopic pregnancy): Approximately 2 percent to 5 percent of expectant mothers who have undergone IVF treatment will experience an ectopic pregnancy. Once the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube, the fertilized egg cannot survive outside the uterus and there is no way to continue the pregnancy.
Birth defects: Maternal age is the primary risk factor for the development of birth defects.
Stress: The IVF method can be financially, physically and emotionally tiring.
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