Gynecological oncology deals with cancer and cancer-causing lesions in the female reproductive system. After breast cancer, the most common gynecological cancers in women are treated with early diagnosis and effective methods.
What Diseases Are He Interested In?
Gynecological oncology surgery applies successful treatment methods in many different types of cancer.
Vulvar cancer, which is the most common type of cancer after uterine, intrauterine and ovarian cancers, is seen in the outer part of the female reproductive organ. Cancer seen in the skin, including the vaginal entrance and clitoris, progresses very slowly. In some cases, patients do not show any symptoms other than very minor symptoms. It is normal to experience pain in the vulva, which is one of the most sensitive areas of the body, especially during sexual intercourse and during menstruation. However, if pain persists for months, it is necessary to consult a specialist. In this way, the lesions, which are the precursors of cancer, are detected beforehand.
Today, it is not possible to tell exactly the cause of vulvar cancer, also known as external genital area cancer. Cell mutations and HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) virus are estimated to cause vulvar cancer.
Vulvar cancer causes various symptoms in patients.
These symptoms include; Pain and bleeding during sexual intercourse, Itching, swelling and burning outside the genital area, Bleeding outside the menstrual period, Warts, Pain during urination, Non-healing wounds in the groin, Skin rashes in the genital area.
Ovarian (Over) Cancer
Since ovarian cancer is one of the cancer types that can be diagnosed late, it is also difficult to treat. It generally occurs in the epithelium and embryonic cells that form the main parts of the ovary. Anomalies and proliferations in these cells cause ovarian cancer. However, the exact cause of ovarian cancer is unknown. Having never given birth, changes in genes and genetic factors are some of the causes of this cancer.
One of the most important reasons for the late diagnosis of ovarian cancer is the absence of symptoms that are common and seen in every woman. It usually manifests itself in the form of bloating and pain in the abdomen. However, these symptoms are not taken into account by most patients. With the growth of the mass, intestinal problems are seen in the following periods. Other complaints seen in some patient groups are bleeding in the vagina, indigestion, loss of appetite and rapid weight loss, frequent urination and constipation, but the first symptom associated with ovarian cancer is pain and swelling in the abdomen.
This cancer is mostly seen after the menopause period. In patients of this age, cancer occurs in epithelial tissues. In ovarian cancer, which can also be seen in individuals under the age of 20, embryonic tissues are usually under the tumor.
Surgical methods are used in the treatment of ovarian cancer, which is usually diagnosed late. Especially in the later stages, since it spreads to different organs, all tumor tissues are removed and chemotherapy is applied to the patients.
Cervical cancer, most of which is associated with the HPV virus, is one of the most common types of cancer in women worldwide. HPV, a sexually transmitted virus, causes infections in the genital area in women. The HPV virus, which causes cancer in the external genital area and reproductive tract and usually does not show many symptoms, has a highly contagious feature. The vagueness of the symptoms means both increased contagiousness and, in some cases, the transmission of this infection for years.
In addition to the HPV virus, some factors are also shown among the causes of cervical cancer. Weak immune system, smoking, giving birth more than once and frequently changing partners in sexual intercourse are among these reasons.
Cancer, which is usually seen in the 30s, 40s and 50s, can also be seen in older women, although it is rare. The fact that the symptoms occur at very advanced stages makes it difficult to diagnose. Most specialist gynecologists do not find anything unusual in the cervix in the early period. In the following periods, bleeding outside the menstrual period or during sexual intercourse, leg and back pain, loss of appetite and weight loss, and urinary problems are among the symptoms of cervical cancer. During this period, the mass is detected.
One of the easiest ways to protect against cervical cancer is to have the HPV vaccine from the age of 12. These vaccines have protection against cervical cancer, as well as vulvar cancer and vaginal cancers.
One of the most common types of cancer, along with breast cancer, is uterine cancer in women both in Turkey and around the world. Uterine cancer, also known as uterine cancer, is caused by cells that multiply and divide uncontrollably in the uterus. Cancerous cells that arise in the uterus begin to spread to the surrounding tissues and organs over time. However, since it is a type of cancer that can be diagnosed at an early stage, its spread can be prevented.
Uterine cancer is generally associated with high estrogen levels. Menstruation period that starts before the age of 12, not having given birth, diabetes and obesity, and advanced age are important factors in the high level of this hormone. The most prominent among the risk groups for uterine cancer are women of advanced age who enter the post-menopausal period.
The most important symptom of uterine cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding. In addition to bleeding, masses in the genital area, pain in the pelvic region, loss of appetite and weight loss, and swelling in the abdomen are among other symptoms.
Uterine cancer, which can be diagnosed early, is a largely curable disease. In addition to surgical methods, the quality of life of patients is increased with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy.
Tubal (Tuba Uterina) Cancers
Tube cancer, whose symptoms are similar to ovarian cancer, is very rare. The tube section, also called the tuba, is located between the uterus and the ovary. Cancer cells can be seen in the tube itself, the purpose of which is to transmit sperm to the ovary, as well as contamination from surrounding tissues.
Just like ovarian cancer, late-diagnosed tube cancer, although rare, can be fatal. The rapid course of the disease also causes delay in diagnosis. Therefore, the indications must be taken into account. However, the symptoms of tube cancer vary from person to person, and patients associate these symptoms with different ailments. Swelling and pain in the abdomen, indigestion, urinary tract disorders and low back pain are among the symptoms of this cancer. The most important symptom is abnormal bleeding and discharge. The diagnosis of tube cancer is usually made incidentally because the symptoms are not taken into account.
Vaginal cancers, also known as reproductive tract cancers or vaginal cancers, can arise directly from the vagina or manifest themselves by metastatic contamination from surrounding tissues. Vaginal cancers, one of the rarest types of cancer among gynecological cancers, are usually seen in the inner part of the vagina. Although the cause is not known exactly, it is thought to be caused by a hormone exposed in the womb. It is also known that HPV virus is associated with this type of cancer, as is the case with vulvar and cervical cancers.
The vast majority of patients worldwide are women aged 45-65. Abnormal bleeding during or after sexual intercourse is the most important symptom of vaginal cancer.
What are the Diagnosis and Treatment Methods?
Early diagnosis of gynecological cancers is of great importance for successful treatment. However, in some types of cancer, the symptoms appearing too late or the patients associate these symptoms with different diseases and ignore the symptoms make it difficult to diagnose. In this sense, women should undergo a gynecological examination at certain intervals, even if they do not show any symptoms. Colposcopy, smear test and biopsy are among the diagnostic methods.
In the treatment, the type of cancer and the course of the disease are of great importance. Depending on these factors, only surgical operation is applied in some types of cancer, while in others, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy are also applied in addition to these operations.
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